Monday, October 27, 2008

Are your children dressed for "Winter" weather?


1. Dress warm and in layers before going outdoors.
2. Natural fibres will draw moisture away from the skin.
3. A nylon shell will keep wind out.
4. Wear a hat! 30% of body heat escapes through the head.
5. Carry extra socks and gloves and change if your current pair get wet.
6. Wear insulated, properly-fitting boots.


Unless the weather is too severe (high wind chill factors due to low temperatures and wind speed) students will be expected to go outside at recess times. We will monitor the weather to determine if outdoor recess will proceed as normal. Parents are urged to speak to your children about dressing properly for the weather. Remind your child to wear the clothing you send with them at every recess.

Thank you for your cooperation in this matter.

Nurse Donna

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Thanksgiving comes early..thanks to the Black River Comedy Club & Homer(ville) Ruritan's.

Thanksgiving comes early in the school nurses office.
I would like extend my personal "thank you" to both the Black River Comedy Club and the Homer(ville) Ruritan's for their generous donation to the nurses clinic in the amount of $275.00 each for 2 new recovery couches (pictured above).
So in the spirit of Thanksgiving, I ask all Black River families to join me in taking a moment over the upcoming holiday to convey your personal thanks to both organizations for the ongoing support this special gift represents to our students and this school system. If not for organizations such as these, community kindness would become a thing we only read about in our history books.
It is simple acts of kindness and random donations such as this that define a community. And there is not doubt as to how blessed Black River Local School District IS to have both these organizations in their midst.
Happy Thanksgiving to all.......
Nurse Donna

Friday, October 10, 2008

The Importance of Breakfast

The most important meal of the day is a title that breakfast just can't escape. When you feel yourself thinking about skipping this all-important part of your morning, put these pearls of wisdom back in your mind:

A sausage, egg, and cheese croissant sandwich at the Drive-Thru is better than no breakfast at all, right? Not necessarily. If you make the effort to eat breakfast, why not do it right? And while you are at it, do it at home. The likelihood of eating a healthy, well-balanced breakfast drops dramatically once you walk out the front door. To get in the habit of eating breakfast at home, try these tips:
· Make yourself a pot of oatmeal at the beginning of the week and heat up a small portion each day.
· Buy five nonfat yogurts and cut up enough fruit for a work-week's worth of breakfast.
· Keep nonfat milk and high-fiber, high-protein dry cereal in your pantry.
· If you are in a rush, grab a banana and some nuts for the road.
· Breakfast does not necessarily have to include "breakfast food"; leftovers of self-prepared meals are better than any convenience store's offerings.
For more information on healthy breakfast suggestions see the following article; Boost Your Metabolism: Quick & Easy Breakfasts to Jump Start Your Day.

Better Performance
Children who eat breakfast regularly perform better in school. Just ask any teacher. When you are not hungry, you can focus on other tasks. Children who eat breakfast also perform better on tests. You can extrapolate this to your life: Adults who eat breakfast perform better in the workplace and home environment. Breakfast helps reduce distraction and can actually help you feel more alert.
For more information on the performance benefits of kids eating breakfast see the following article: Brain Food for Kids: Feed Your Children So They Excel at School.

Pleasantly full feeling
People who eat breakfast eat less throughout the day. You may be saying to yourself, "But breakfast actually makes me hungrier!" This is true, if it is unbalanced. Try combining a bit of protein, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat at every breakfast. This combination makes you feel full for longer than a straight carbohydrate breakfast will. A whole-wheat bagel with low-fat peanut butter is a better option than a white bagel with jelly. The protein, fat, and fiber in the first breakfast slows digestion and stomach emptying. In this way, it outlasts the carbohydrate load of the latter breakfast, even if the calories are similar.
It is okay to feel hungry between breakfast and lunch. Prepare yourself for this situation by packing a snack with less than 250 calories. If you feel guilty about eating so often, keep this in mind: A healthy small breakfast and a healthy small snack in order to get you to a healthy small lunch is a much better option than a gigantic fattening early lunch you attacked because of morning food depravation.

Looking out for number one
Starting your day with breakfast sets you on the path to success that day. Breakfast helps avoid distraction, helps you avoid overeating, and enhances your attentiveness and performance. Breakfast should be high in fiber and protein, moderate in fat, and adequate in carbohydrate. Most people can sustain themselves for a few hours on a breakfast of 250-350 calories. But skipping that small amount entirely could be the biggest mistake of your day!
For further information on the why you should eat breakfast see the following article; Why It's Important to Make Breakfast a Priority.

Nurse Donna

Friday, October 3, 2008

4 Ways to Stay Healthy at Work

Viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs cause the flu and the common cold. These germs usually spread from one person to another when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Here are four ways to stop this cycle:

Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. Use a tissue or cover your mouth with your hands. Then clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze.
Clean your hands often. For 15 to 20 seconds, rub your hands vigorously together and scrub all surfaces with soap and warm water. It is the soap, combined with the scrubbing action, that helps dislodge and remove germs. When soap and water are not available, alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers may be used. If using a gel, rub it on your hands until they are dry.

Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Germs are often spread when a person touches a contaminated surface and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs can live for up to two hours or more on surfaces such as doorknobs, desks, and tables.
Stay home when you are sick. Also, see a health care provider if necessary. Your employer may need a doctor's note for an excused absence.

Nurse Donna

Thursday, October 2, 2008

Head lice facts

What are head lice?
The head louse, or Pediculus humanus capitis (peh-DICK-you-lus HUE-man-us CAP-ih-TUS), is a parasitic insect that can be found on the head, eyebrows, and eyelashes of people. Head lice feed on human blood several time a day and live close to the human scalp. Head lice are not known to spread disease.

Who is at risk for getting head lice?
Head lice are found worldwide. In the United States, infestation with head lice is most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and the household members of infested children. Although reliable data on how many people in the United States get head lice each year are not available, an estimated 6 million to 12 million infestations occur each year in the United States among children 3 to 11 years of age. In the United States, infestation with head lice is much less common among African-Americans than among persons of other races, possibly because the claws of the of the head louse found most frequently in the United States are better adapted for grasping the shape and width of the hair shaft of other races.

Head lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice are spread by direct contact with the hair of an infested person. Anyone who comes in head-to-head contact with someone who already has head lice is at greatest risk. Spread by contact with clothing (such as hats, scarves, coats) or other personal items (such as combs, brushes, or towels) used by an infested person is uncommon. Personal hygiene or cleanliness in the home or school has nothing to do with getting head lice.

What do head lice look like?
Head lice have three forms: the egg (also called a nit), the nymph, and the adult.

Egg/Nit: Nits are lice eggs laid by the adult female head louse at the base of the hair shaft nearest the scalp. Nits are firmly attached to the hair shaft and are oval-shaped and very small (about the size of a knot in thread) and hard to see. Nits often appear yellow or white although live nits sometimes appear to be the same color as the hair of the infested person. Nits are often confused with dandruff, scabs, or hair spray droplets. Head lice nits usually take about 8-9 days to hatch. Eggs that are likely to hatch are usually located no more than ¼ inch (or 1 centimeter) from the base of the hair shaft.

Nymph: A nymph is an immature louse that hatches from the nit. A nymph looks like an adult head louse, but is smaller. To live, a nymph must feed on blood. Nymphs mature into adults about 9-12 days after hatching from the nit.

Adult: The fully grown and developed adult louse is about the size of a sesame seed, has six legs, and is tan to grayish-white in color. Adult head lice may look darker in persons with dark hair than in persons with light hair. To survive, adult head lice must feed on blood. An adult head louse can live about 30 days on a person’s head but will die within one or two days if it falls off a person. Adult female head lice are usually larger than males and can lay about six eggs each day.

Where are head lice most commonly found?

Adult louse claws. Head lice and head lice nits are found almost exclusively on the scalp, particularly around and behind the ears and near the neckline at the back of the head. Head lice or head lice nits sometimes are found on the eyelashes or eyebrows but this is uncommon. Head lice hold tightly to hair with hook-like claws at the end of each of their six legs; head lice nits are cemented firmly to the hair shaft and can be difficult to remove.

What are the signs and symptoms of head lice infestation?
Tickling feeling of something moving in the hair.
Itching, caused by an allergic reaction to the bites of the head louse.
Irritability and difficulty sleeping; head lice are most active in the dark..
Sores on the head caused by scratching. These sores can sometimes become infected with bacteria found on the person's skin.

How did my child get head lice?
Head-to-head contact with an already infested person is the most common way to get head lice. Head-to-head contact is common during play at school, at home, and elsewhere (sports activities, playground, slumber parties, camp).

Uncommonly, head lice may be spread by sharing clothing or belongings onto which lice or nits may have crawled or fallen. Examples include: sharing clothing (hats, scarves, coats, sports uniforms) or articles (hair ribbons, barrettes, combs, brushes, towels, stuffed animals) recently worn or used by an infested person; or lying on a bed, couch, pillow, or carpet that has recently been in contact with an infested person. The risk of getting an infestation by a louse or nit that has fallen onto a carpet or furniture is very small.
Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the spread of human lice.

How is head lice infestation diagnosed?
The diagnosis of a head lice infestation is best made by finding a live nymph or adult louse on the scalp or hair of a person. Because nymphs and adult lice are very small, move quickly, and avoid light, they can be difficult to find. Use of a magnifying lens and a fine-toothed comb may be helpful to find live lice. If crawling lice are not seen, finding nits firmly attached within a 1/4 inch of base of the hair shafts strongly suggests, but does not confirm, that a person is infested and should be treated. Nits that are attached more than 1/4 inch from the base of the hair shaft are almost always dead or already hatched. Nits are often confused with other things found in the hair such as dandruff, hair spray droplets, and dirt particles. If no live nymphs or adult lice are seen, and the only nits found are more than ¼-inch from the scalp, the infestation is probably old and no longer active and does not need to be treated.

If you are not sure if a person has head lice, the diagnosis should be made by their health care provider, local health department, or other person trained to identify live head lice.

How is head lice infestation treated?

This fact sheet is for information only and is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the disease described above or think that you may have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider.


General Guidelines
Treatment for head lice is recommended for persons diagnosed with an active infestation. All household members and other close contacts should be checked; those persons with evidence of an active infestation should be treated. Some experts believe prophylactic treatment is prudent for persons who share the same bed with actively-infested individuals. All infested persons (household members and close contacts) and their bedmates should be treated at the same time.
Retreatment of head lice usually is recommended because no approved pediculicide (peh-DICK-you-luh-side) is completely ovicidal.

To be most effective, retreatment should occur after all eggs have hatched but before before new eggs are produced. The retreatment schedule can vary depending on the pediculicide used.
When treating head lice, supplemental measures can be combined with recommended medicine (pharmacologic treatment); however, such additional (non-pharmacologic) measures generally are not required to eliminate a head lice infestation. For example, hats, scarves, pillow cases, bedding, clothing, and towels worn or used by the infested person in the 2-day period just before treatment is started can be machine washed and dried using the hot water and hot air cycles because lice and eggs are killed by exposure for 5 minutes to temperatures greater than 53.5°C (128.3°F). Items that cannot be laundered may be dry-cleaned or sealed in a plastic bag for two weeks. Items such as hats, grooming aids, and towels that come in contact with the hair of an infested person should not be shared. Vacuuming furniture and floors can remove an infested person’s hairs that might have viable nits attached.
Treat the infested person(s): Requires using an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medication. Follow these treatment steps:
Before applying treatment, it may be helpful to remove clothing that can become wet or stained during treatment.
Apply lice medicine, also called pediculicide, according to the instructions contained in the box or printed on the label. If the infested person has very long hair (longer than shoulder length), it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label or in the box regarding how long the medication should be left on the hair and how it should be washed off.
WARNING: Do not use a creme rinse, combination shampoo/conditioner, or condition before using lice medicine. Do not re-wash the hair for 1-2 days after the lice medicine is removed.
Have the infested person put on clean clothing after treatment.
If a few live lice are still found 8-12 hours after treatment, but are moving more slowly than before, do not retreat. The medicine may take longer to kill all the lice. Comb dead and any remaining live lice out of the hair using a fine-toothed nit comb.
If, after 8-12 hours of treatment, no dead lice are found and lice seem as active as before, the medicine may not be working. Do not retreat until speaking with your health care provider; a different lice medicine (pediculicide) may be necessary. If your health care provider recommends a different pediculicide, carefully follow the treatment instructions contained in the box or printed on the label.
Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should be used to comb nits and lice from the hair shaft. Many flea combs made for cats and dogs are also effective.
After each treatment, checking the hair and combing with a nit comb to remove nits and lice every 2-3 days may decrease the chance of self-reinfestation. Continue to check for 2-3 weeks to be sure all lice and nits are gone.
Retreatment generally is recommended for most prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter) drugs after 9-10 days in order to kill any surviving hatched lice before they produce new eggs. However, if using the prescription drug malathion, retreatment is recommended after 7-9 days ONLY if crawling bugs are found. Click here for instructions on how to use malathion to treat head lice.
Supplemental Measures : Head lice do not survive long if they fall off a person and cannot feed. You don't need to spend a lot of time or money on housecleaning activities. Follow these steps to help avoid re-infestation by lice that have recently fallen off the hair or crawled onto clothing or furniture.
Machine wash and dry clothing, bed linens, and other items that the infested person wore or used during the 2 days before treatment using the hot water (130°F) laundry cycle and the high heat drying cycle. Clothing and items that are not washable can be dry-cleaned
ORsealed in a plastic bag and stored for 2 weeks.
Soak combs and brushes in hot water (at least 130°F) for 5-10 minutes.
Vacuum the floor and furniture, particularly where the infested person sat or lay. However, the risk of getting infested by a louse that has fallen onto a rug or carpet carpet or furniture is very small. Head lice survive less than 1-2 days if they fall off a person and cannot feed; nits cannot hatch and usually die within a week if they are not kept at the same temperature as that found close to the human scalp. Spending much time and money on housecleaning activities is not necessary to avoid reinfestation by lice or nits that may have fallen off the head or crawled onto furniture or clothing.
Do not use fumigant sprays; they can be toxic if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

Prevent Reinfestation:
Avoid head-to-head (hair-to-hair) contact during play and other activities at home, school, and elsewhere (sports activities, playground, slumber parties, camp). Lice are spread most commonly by direct head-to-head (hair-to-hair) contact and much less frequently by sharing clothing or belongings onto which lice or nits may have crawled or fallen.
Do not share clothing such as hats, scarves, coats, sports uniforms, hair ribbons, or barrettes.
Do not share infested combs, brushes, or towels.
Do not lie on beds, couches, pillows, rugs, carpets, or stuffed animals that have recently been in contact with an infested person.
To help control a head lice outbreak in a community, school, or camp, children can be taught to avoid activities that may spread head lice.

Over-the-counter Medications
Many head lice medications are available over-the-counter without a prescription at a local drug store or pharmacy. Each over-the-counter product approved for the treatment of head lice contains one of the following active ingredients.
Pyrethrins (pie-WREATH-rins) combined with piperonyl butoxide (pie-PER-a-nil beu-TOX-side);Brand name products: A-200*, Pronto*, R&C*, Rid*, Triple X*.
Pyrethrins are naturally occurring pyrethroid extracts from the chrysanthemum flower. Pyrethrins are safe and effective when used as directed. Pyrethrins can only kill live lice, not unhatched eggs (nits). A second treatment is recommended in 9-10 days to kill any newly hatched lice before they can produce new eggs. Treatment failures can be common depending on whether lice are resistant to pyrethrins in the patient’s geographic location. Pyrethrins generally should not be used by persons who are allergic to chrysanthemums or ragweed.
Permethrin (per-meth-rin):Brand name product: Nix*.
Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid similar to naturally occurring pyrethrins. Permethrin is safe and effective when used as directed. Permethrin kills live lice but not unhatched eggs. Permethrin may continue to kill newly hatched lice for several days after treatment. A second treatment often is necessary in 9-10 days to kill any newly hatched lice before they can produce new eggs. Treatment failures can be common depending whether lice are resistant to permethrin in the patients geographic location. Permethrin is not approved for use in children less than 2 years old.

Prescription Medications
The following medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of head lice are available only by prescription.
Malathion (Ovide*); Brand name product: Ovide*
Malathion is an organophosphate. The formulation of malathion approved in the United States for the treatment of head lice is a lotion that is safe and effective when used as directed. Malathion is pediculicidal (kills live lice) and partially ovicidal (kills some lice eggs). A second treatment is recommended if live lice still are present 7-9 days after treatment. Malathion is intended for use on persons 6 years of age and older. Malathion can be irritating to the skin and scalp; contact with the eyes should be avoided. Malathion lotion is flammable; do not smoke or use electrical heat sources, including hair dryers, curlers, and curling or flat irons, when applying malathion lotion and while the hair is wet. See our information on treating with Malathion for more details.
Lindane; Brand name products: None available
Lindane is an organochloride. Lindane is not recommended as a first-line therapy. Overuse, misuse, or accidentally swallowing lindane can be toxic to the brain and other parts of the nervous system; its use should be restricted to patients who have failed treatment with or cannot tolerate other medications that pose less risk. Lindane should not be used to treat premature infants, persons with a seizure disorder, women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, persons who have very irritated skin or sores where the lindane will be applied, infants, children, the elderly, and persons who weigh less than 110 pounds.
Which medicine is best?
If you arent sure which medicine to use or how to use a particular medicine, always ask your physician, pharmacist, or other health care provider. CDC does not make recommendations about specific products. When using a medicine, always carefully follow the instructions contained in the package or written on the label, unless the physician and pharmacist direct otherwise.
When treating head lice
Do not use extra amounts of any lice medication unless instructed to do so by your physician and pharmacist. The drugs used to treat lice are insecticides and can be dangerous if they are misused or overused.
Do not treat an infested person more than 2-3 times with the same medication if it does not seem to be working. This may be caused by using the medicine incorrectly or by resistance to the medicine. Always seek the advice of your health care provider if this should happen. He/she may recommend an alternative medication.
Do not use different head lice drugs at the same time unless instructed to do so by your physician and pharmacist.

Page last modified: May 16, 2008
Page last reviewed: May 16, 2008
Content Source: Division of Parasitic Diseases (DPD)
National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (ZVED)
Page Located on the Web at

Nurse Donna

Back to school means "backpack safety."

Backpacks help kids carry schoolbooks and supplies, but they can also be harmful when overloaded and/or improperly fitted, warns the American Physical Therapy Association.

"Wearing backpacks improperly or ones that are too heavy put children at increased frisk for musculoskeletal injuries," Mary Ann Wilmarth, assistant dean and director of the transitional doctors of physical therapy degree at Northeastern University in Boston, said in a prepared statement. She's conducted a number of studies on school backpacks.

Injuries occur when children use faulty postures -- such as arching the back, bending forward, twisting, or leaning to one side -- when they're trying to manage a heavily loaded backpack. These faulty postures can cause improper spinal alignment, which hampers the functioning of spinal discs that provide shock absorption, Wilmarth explained.

Overloaded backpacks also place an extra burden on muscles and soft tissues, causing fatigue and strain that increases the risk of neck, shoulder and back injuries.

Wilmarth offered some backpack safety tips:

1. Use both straps in order to better distribute the weight of the backpack and to promote a well-aligned, symmetrical posture. Using one strap means that one side of the body has to bear most of the weight of the backpack.
2. Be careful when putting on and removing backpacks. Keep the trunk of the body stable and avoid excessive twisting.
3. The backpack should be positioned evenly in the middle of the back, near the wearer's center of gravity. The backpack should not extend below the lower back. Adjust the shoulder straps so that the child is able to put on and remove the backpack without difficulty. While the straps should not be too loose, they should be adjusted to permit free movement of the arms.
4. Keep the load at 10 percent to 15 percent or less of the child's bodyweight. Children should carry only items they require for the day. The heaviest items in the backpack should be positioned closest to the back.
5. Encourage children to be active, in order to promote better muscle strength and flexibility, which makes it easier to carry a backpack.

For additional information go to; The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has more about backpack safety.

Nurse Donna

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Information from SNAP (School Network for Absenteeism Prevention)

The single most important thing we can do to keep from getting sick and spreading illness to others is to clean our hands!

Here are the reasons why . . .

One of the most common ways people catch colds is by rubbing their noses or eyes after touching someone or something that's contaminated with the cold virus (rhinovirus).

Nearly 22 million school days are lost annually due to the common cold.

52.2 million cases of the common cold affect Americans under age 17 each year.

Than some food borne illnesses are spread through lack of hand cleaning. In fact, certain strains of E. coli, salmonella, and other bacteria can live on surfaces like cafeteria tables and doorknobs for up to two hours.

Rotavirus - a germ that causes gastrointestinal illness - can be transferred from a dry, smooth surface to a clean hand for as long as 20 minutes after the surface has been contaminated.

Infectious disease accounts for millions of lost school days each year.

Diarrhea is second only to the common cold as a cause of lost working time, with about 25 days lost from work or school each year for every 100 Americans.

Teacher illness costs time and money - not to mention the negative effects that teacher absences may have on student learning. In fact, teachers can be absent from school more days a year than students. One study found that teacher illness-related absences averaged 5.3 days a year, in contrast to an average of 4.5 days a year for students.

Students don't clean their hands often or well enough. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle and high school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Of these, only 33% of the females and 8% of the males used soap.

Adult hand cleaning behaviors also need improvement. In one study, about 33% of adults using public restrooms didn't wash their hands after using the bathroom.

Hand cleaning and basic hygiene habits are generally learned during early childhood. But people need to be reminded periodically about the importance of clean hands to wash them as often and thoroughly as they should.12,13 Research suggests that it is important for hygiene lessons to be repeated during the K-12 school curricula.

One study involving Detroit school children showed that scheduled hand washing, at least four times a day, can reduce gastrointestinal illness and related absences by more than 50%.

A case-control study of 6,080 school children showed that those who used classroom-dispensed, instant hand sanitizers at specific times during the day, in addition to normal hand cleaning habits, experienced 20% fewer absences due to illness.

A four-week hand washing program for a class of first grade students was associated with fewer absences and prescribed antibiotics than were reported the previous school year.

So there you have it . . . clean hands are key to good health for the whole school community!

Compliments of:

School Network for Absenteeism Prevention. Established 2003. The information contained in this Web site was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and The Soap and Detergent Association. This information is not copyrighted. It is for educational purposes only.


Clean Hands Coalition-

American Society for Microbiology Clean Hands Campaign-

An Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away-


CDC Clean Hands Save Lives-

CDC Germ Stopper-

Fight BAC!®-

National Coalition for Food Safe Schools-

Scrub Club-

Think healthy...

Nurse Donna

Straight from the CDC website to you...Handwashing

Keeping hands clean is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. It is best to wash your hands with soap and clean running water for 20 seconds. However, if soap and clean water are not available, use an alcohol-based product to clean your hands. Alcohol-based hand rubs significantly reduce the number of germs on skin and are fast acting.

When washing hands with soap and water:

Wet your hands with clean running water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available.
Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces.
Continue rubbing hands for 20 seconds. Need a timer? Imagine singing "Happy Birthday" twice through to a friend!
Rinse hands well under running water
Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet
Remember: If soap and water are not available, use alcohol-based gel to clean hands.

When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer:

Apply product to the palm of one hand
Rub hands together
Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry.

When should you wash your hands?

Before preparing or eating food
After going to the bathroom
After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has gone to the bathroom
Before and after tending to someone who is sick
After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
After handling an animal or animal waste
After handling garbage
Before and after treating a cut or wound
Featured Items

Remember, Clean Hands Save Lives!

* Links to non-Federal organizations found at this site are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the Federal Government, and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization Web pages found at these links.

Page last modified: February 18, 2008
Page last reviewed: November 22, 2006
Content Source: National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (ZVED)
Page Located on the Web at

The above material is compliments of the Center for Disease (CDC).
Nurse Donna